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    GraphicsAcademy.com  >  File Formats  >  Joint Photographic Experts Group

       

     

    JPEG File Format

    Short Name JPEG
    Long Name Joint Photographic Experts Group
    Typical File Extensions .jpeg .jpg .jpe
    Contains Bitmap
    Technically speaking, JPEG refers to a particular compression algorithm:
    • The JPEG compression algorithm a lossy method of compression that is most suitable for compressing True Color photographs and other continuous tone images.

    • For images with sharp changes in tone, the format is less suitable and can introduce artifacts into the images.

    • In JPEG compression, it is possible to control the amount of data lost by the compression process. In many software applications, you will find an option to control the Quality of the Save process:

      • Generally, a higher quality will result in less data loss, and fewer artifacts introduced into the image, but at the cost of higher file size.

      • Generally, a lower quality will result in more data loss, a smaller file size, but more artifacts introduced into the image.
    The JPEG compression algorithm is supported by a number of file formats, including TIFF, but for the purposes of this discussion we need to talk about the JFIF file format.

    JFIF stands for "JPEG File Interchange Format" and is a relatively simple wrapper around a JPEG compressed image. Somewhat confusingly, many people (and books) refer to JFIF as "JPEG files". Thus, when somebody says a file is in "JPEG format" they actually mean it is a JFIF file containing a JPEG-compressed image.

    JPEG 2000, is a enhanced version of the JPEG system, which adds a number of features, including better compression, and an optional lossless compression mode (which doesn't reduce file sizes as much as the lossy mode, but preserves the image exactly). At the time of writing, JPEG 2000 is not especially widely supported by software applications.

    A technical discussion of this format can be found in Chapter 17 of Graphics File Formats by David C. Kay and John R. Levine. The book does not appear to cover JPEG 2000.


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